CFD Analysis of Fire and Smoke Behaviour

In the event of a fire within a building or any underground space such as a car park or tunnel etc; smoke will most certainly rise and spread. This causes escape routes to be blocked off due to the heat, fumes and poor visibility. The incorporation of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) can ensure escape routes are kept clear and smoke extraction systems are designed efficiently to help save lives.

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modelling is a tool which is used extensively by fire safety engineers. It gives them a detailed analysis of buildings, smoke extraction systems and the behaviour of smoke and fire. Fire safety engineers work closely with building designers and architects to establish a detailed design of smoke vents and extraction systems to predict the movement of smoke. CFD modelling also analyses the building design and layout, to ensure it achieves sufficient safety measures and clear evacuation routes in the event of a fire. They work together to make sure every area of the building is evaluated and is in accordance with the building regulations.

By using advanced computer modelling techniques, the use of Computational Fluid Dynamic modelling will enable fire engineers to simulate the building with detailed layouts of smoke extraction systems. The virtual layout of the building will demonstrate the behaviour of smoke and fire, enabling you to examine the airflow patterns with a with a detailed map; showing how it where it is likely to spread. This establishes the best smoke ventilation design system for your building. CFD simulation will also help you to determine thermal response throughout the building and gives you a detailed analysis of systems involving fluid flow. This includes the movement of gases, heat transfer, chemical reactions and combustion. It can also give you a detailed simulation of how the building structure will behave in the event of a fire.

The main purpose of the CFD simulation is to analyse and determine the time between when a fire was started until the conditions of any escape route become inaccessible by fire or smoke. CFD modelling is paramount to saving lives, the simulations are important for developing new ideas, better smoke extraction systems, building designs and improving fire safety techniques.

Here, we use Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modelling on a regular basis. We can provide you with a solution to designing your smoke ventilation system and ensure you have the best ventilation system for your building; whilst meeting building regulations and maintaining the highest levels of safety. We provide CFD simulations for natural and mechanical smoke ventilation systems, car parks, corridors, stairways, emergency exits and offices etc.



The used of CFD enables smoke extraction systems to be designed a way that will keep emergency exits clear of smoke, gases and heat. This will allow occupants of the building to escape safely with minimal injury or inhalation of toxic fumes.


Incorporating CFD simulation before any design or construction process, allows you to test and analyse the design to make sure that all possible fire scenarios are covered. Designing smoke extraction systems or modifying a building without CFD could incur errors. This not only compromises safety, but it could also mean that you need to redesign and reconstruct your smoke extraction system and building. This will be very costly and time-consuming.


Computational Fluid Dynamics modelling gives you freedom of design when it comes to designing your building. The desire for a new room or compartment can be planned in more detail when using CFD. Extensions can be assessed according to fire safety and behaviour which will allow you to construct and design any extra space efficiently. This gives more freedom of design for architects and property designers, whilst providing more saleable space and increasing the value of your property.

Here, much of our fire engineering analysis is supported using CFD modelling programmes. We source the latest modelling programmes to determine your safest options. Whatever the size of your building, we offer a solution that fits your needs and requirements. Our aim is to give you a system that is cost-effective, maximises space and meets the highest standards of fire safety, which satisfies the legislation and requirements.


  • CFD Analysis of the effects of smoke and fire on interior spaces.
  • Assessment of smoke management system to achieve tenability conditions.
  • Calculate the safe egress time in case a Fire scenario.
  • Code compliance.
  • Optimization of smoke management system.
  • Optimization of number of Jet fans based on CFD analysis.
  • Assessment of CO Ventilation in a normal mode in a car park.

Spaces Modelled:

  • Car Parks
  • Malls
  • Airports
  • Stadiums
  • Auditoriums
  • Large Gathering facilities
  • Office spaces
  • Hanger Rooms
  • Tunnels